Common Knowledge Points of CompTIA Security+ [Part 2]

This article is a continued article of Common Knowledge Points of CompTIA Security+ Part 1

Hashtags: #CompTIA #SecurityPlus #firewall #VPN #VLAN

Active-active: Load balancing uses a redundant mode to route traffic evenly through two load balancers.


Active-passive: The load balancer uses a redundant mode, which routes traffic through an active load balancer, and its passive load balancer is in a standby state to prevent active equipment from malfunctioning.


Affinity association: A scheduling method used by load balancing to forward the client's traffic to the server with which the client has established a connection.


Round-robin: A scheduling method used by load balancers to route traffic to each device one by one according to a list.


Weight: The agreed weight is used to distribute requests to different machines according to the weight, which is suitable for situations where the performance of background machines is different.


RP repeater: It is a connecting device that works on the physical layer. It is suitable for the interconnection of two types of networks that are exactly the same. The main function is to extend the distance of network transmission by resending or forwarding data signals.


Authentication header (AH): It provides connectionless data integrity, message authentication, and protection against replay attacks for IP packets.


Encapsulated Security Payload (ESP): It provides confidentiality, data source authentication, connectionless integrity, anti-replay, and limited traffic-flow confidentiality.


Security Association (SA): It provides algorithms and data packets, and provides parameters required for AH and ESP operations.


IKE: It defines the method of identity authentication, negotiation of encryption algorithms, and generation of shared session keys between communicating entities.


MAP (Internet Mail Access Protocol): It is a protocol used to retrieve email messages and folders from a mail server.


MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension): It is an extension of SMTP that enables the exchange of audio, video, images, applications, and other data formats through e-mail.


PGP (Pretty Good Privacy, Chinese translation "Excellent Confidentiality Agreement"): It is a way to protect emails, by using public-key encryption technology to encrypt and digitally sign the content of emails to prevent attackers from intercepting and operating emails and accessories.


SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol): It is the de-facto standard for transmitting email on the Internet.


Telnet: Allows the client to initiate remote command access to the TCP/IP-based host.


RDP Remote Desktop Protocol: It is a multi-channel protocol that allows users (clients or "local computers") to connect to computers that provide Microsoft terminal services.


Cellular: It is wireless communication technology. This technology divides a geographic area into several cells, called "cells" (or Cells).


VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol): It is a voice call technology that uses Internet Protocol (IP) to achieve voice calls and multimedia conferences, that is, to communicate via the Internet.


NT: It is a proprietary wireless network technology, similar to Bluetooth technology that consumes less energy.


SATCOM (Satellite Communication): It is a long-distance wireless transmission form that sends or receives radio technology from orbiting satellites.


DEP (Data Execution Protection): It is a CPU and windows function that can prevent malicious code execution in memory.


DLP (Data Loss and Leak Prevention): It is a software solution that can detect and prevent sensitive information in the system and network from being stolen or otherwise falling into the hands of criminals.


UTM (Unified Threat Management): It is the practice of integrating different security technologies into one device.


TLS (Transport Layer Security): It is a security protocol that uses certificates and public-key encryption technology for mutual authentication and data encryption on TCP/IP connections.


LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol): It is a simple network protocol used to access a network directory database, which stores information about authorized users and their permissions, as well as information about other organizations.


SCP (Secure Copy Protocol): It is a protocol that uses SSH to securely transfer computer files between a local and a remote host or between two remote hosts.


SRTP(Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol): It is a Protocol defined on the basis of real-time Transport Protocol, which aims to provide encryption, message authentication, integrity assurance, and replay protection for real-time Transport Protocol data in unicast and multicast applications.


Forward proxy: The forward proxy is a proxy for the client, serving the client, and the forward proxy should be deployed on the client. In the forward proxy mode, the real server only knows that the request comes from the proxy server and does not know the client that actually made the request, so the real client is hidden. The role of the forward proxy is to access the server instead of the user.


Reverse proxy: Reverse proxy is a proxy for the server and serves the server. The reverse proxy should be deployed on the server-side. When returning a response, the client only knows that the response comes from the proxy server and does not know the server that actually responded, so that the real server is hidden. The role of the reverse proxy is to replace the server to respond to client requests.


ARP: Display and modify the items in the "Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)" cache.


netstat: The nestat command is a very useful tool for monitoring TCP/IP networks. It can display the routing table, the actual network connection, and the status information of each network interface device.


CER (Cross Error Rate): It is an indicator of biometric devices and describes the threshold of FAR and FRR. The low CER value represents a high-precision biometric system.


FAR (False Acceptance Rate): It is an indicator in the biometric system that describes the percentage of unauthorized users that have passed the verification in the biometric system by mistake.


FRR (False Rejection Rate): It is an indicator in the biometric system that describes the percentage of authorized users who are incorrectly rejected by the biometric system.


Antivirus (antivirus software): This application scans files for executable code that matches known specific patterns common in viruses.


FDE (Full Disk Encryption): It is a storage technology that encrypts the entire storage drive at the hardware level.


Secure Shell (SSH): It is used to encrypt network management sessions. The encryption is based on RSA and TCP port number 22.

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